Sunday, 26 March 2017

An Oriental Stalingrad and the Chinese Invention of Kamikaze

The Japanese are usually accredited with the development of kamikaze tactics in modern warfare. This is thanks to the dramatic attacks they staged on the Americans in WWII. The rituals that the kamikaze pilots used to prepare themselves for certain death also contributed to the impression that such attacks were part of an ancient and unbroken tradition. They were not. 

The kamikaze attacks launched by the Japanese were acts of desperation, when the war was going against them and their home islands were under direct attack for the first time since the attempted Mongol invasions in the late 13th century. At that time a great typhoon—a "god wind" (kamikaze)—had saved Japan, hence the name of the 20th century suicide attackers.

But rather than the Japanese, who merely branded the technique, it is the Chinese who should get the main credit for its innovation; especially since it appears that the Chinese also "schooled" the Japanese in kamikaze tactics by using them against the Japanese, after they had pushed deep into China.

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Stabbed in the Front: Operation Michael, the Ultimate Pyrrhic Victory

99 years ago today the most important event of the 20th century took place, the launch of the last great German offensive in World War One. WWII was merely a post-script to what happened on that day. 

By early 1918, the Germans were in a tight spot. Although Russia had been knocked out of the War by the Bolshevik Revolution and the agreement of Brest-Litovsk, which had ceded enormous territories, the Germans and their Allies were suffering the effects of the prolonged British naval blockade and deep discontent on the home front, with war weariness and strikes breaking out. Also, they were facing the prospect of millions of fresh American troops arriving in the months ahead.

Tuesday, 7 March 2017

The Mongols Conquer the Great City of Kaifeng

The fall of the city of Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin State on the 26th of February, 1233 was the decisive moment in one of the greatest wars of the medieval period, the war between the Mongols and the Jin State that lasted from 1211 to 1234. It was also the culmination of the greatest power struggle between the various "peoples of the steppes" who dominated Chinese history for a thousand years - from the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907 to the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912).