Wednesday, 10 May 2017

The Indian Mutiny as a Loss and Revival of Imperial Spirit

Miss Wheeler defending herself at the Massacre of Cawnpore.
You can look far and wide for the causes of the Indian Mutiny, which started today in 1857 at the garrison town of Meerut, around 40 miles North East of Delhi.

The most famous cause usually given is the use of pig and cow grease as waterproofing on paper gunpowder cartridges (measured amounts of gunpowder) that the Indian Sepoy troops were then required to open with their teeth, offending their delicate Muslim or Hindu sensibilities. Many other causes are also mentioned, including economic, social, and military ones – such as changes to the terms of military service that required Indian troops to serve overseas. A review of all of these could get quite boring.

Friday, 28 April 2017

The Odd Odyssey of the Dead Duce

The trials and tribulations of Mussolini's body

When Hitler committed suicide in Berlin on the 30th of April, the direct cause was the military collapse of Germany and the victory of the Red Army, but the event that emotionally triggered it was the death two days previously of Hitler’s main ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Hitler simply did not want to live in a world without Mussolini.

Sunday, 2 April 2017

Copenhagen, the Fulcrum of Napoleon's Downfall

216 years ago today (2nd of April), the First Battle of Copenhagen was fought as part of the great struggle against Revolutionary France, a war that filled the period 1792-1815. The follow-up battle was fought six and a half years later. Both battles involved large British forces pitted against Danish defenders on sea and land. The first involved Lord Nelson, the second the future Duke of Wellington. 

The fact that two big battles between the same contestants occurred at the same point within a historically short span of time is not insignificant. It underlines the fact that Copenhagen was of vital importance to Britain's wider strategy.

Sunday, 26 March 2017

An Oriental Stalingrad and the Chinese Invention of Kamikaze

The Japanese are usually accredited with the development of kamikaze tactics in modern warfare. This is thanks to the dramatic attacks they staged on the Americans in WWII. The rituals that the kamikaze pilots used to prepare themselves for certain death also contributed to the impression that such attacks were part of an ancient and unbroken tradition. They were not. 

The kamikaze attacks launched by the Japanese were acts of desperation, when the war was going against them and their home islands were under direct attack for the first time since the attempted Mongol invasions in the late 13th century. At that time a great typhoon—a "god wind" (kamikaze)—had saved Japan, hence the name of the 20th century suicide attackers.

But rather than the Japanese, who merely branded the technique, it is the Chinese who should get the main credit for its innovation; especially since it appears that the Chinese also "schooled" the Japanese in kamikaze tactics by using them against the Japanese, after they had pushed deep into China.

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Stabbed in the Front: Operation Michael, the Ultimate Pyrrhic Victory

99 years ago today the most important event of the 20th century took place, the launch of the last great German offensive in World War One. WWII was merely a post-script to what happened on that day. 

By early 1918, the Germans were in a tight spot. Although Russia had been knocked out of the War by the Bolshevik Revolution and the agreement of Brest-Litovsk, which had ceded enormous territories, the Germans and their Allies were suffering the effects of the prolonged British naval blockade and deep discontent on the home front, with war weariness and strikes breaking out. Also, they were facing the prospect of millions of fresh American troops arriving in the months ahead.

Tuesday, 7 March 2017

The Mongols Conquer the Great City of Kaifeng

The fall of the city of Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin State on the 26th of February, 1233 was the decisive moment in one of the greatest wars of the medieval period, the war between the Mongols and the Jin State that lasted from 1211 to 1234. It was also the culmination of the greatest power struggle between the various "peoples of the steppes" who dominated Chinese history for a thousand years - from the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907 to the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912).

Sunday, 19 February 2017

Meet Liu Ziye, the Chinese Caligula

Rome is justly notorious for several of its Emperors, whether Nero with his cruelty and artistic vanity, Commodus with his gladiatorial obsessions, or Heliogabalus with his perverse sexuality. But the most notorious of the Emperors is undoubtedly Caligula, who committed acts of evil, depravity, and insanity with a degree of panache that makes him the epitome of Lord Acton's famous axiom that power corrupts while absolute power corrupts absolutely.

But Rome was not alone in bestowing such corrupting power on men. The Chinese have an even longer history of Emperors, and although they found ways to contain and enervate their emperors behind silken curtains and clouds of incense and opium, ministered by eunuchs and concubines, they too had their mad, bad, and dangerous-to-know emperors. 

The closest comparison to Caligula was perhaps Liu Ziye (劉子業), who reigned as the Emperor Qianfei over a vast area of Southern China as part of the Southern Song Dynasty (420-479).